Building your home is one of the most exciting and rewarding projects one takes up at least once in a life time. The overall project at times can be overwhelming for many. However, this can be avoided by proper planning
Planning is the most important part. Each step of construction is very important and proper planning helps in completion of the project smoothly. It starts from selecting an appropriate place/ plot for construction. Also make sure that the piece of land is not prone to flooding and cleared from Registrar’s office. Make sure there is availability of public amenities like road, water, electricity, drainage etc. Based on what your budget is, hire an architect to design your house accordingly. Make sure that the contractor working on the project is experienced.
Cement is one of the most important raw materials to be used for construction. When mixed with sand it is used for brickwork and plasterwork. And when mixed with sand and other raw materials, it is used as concrete. Make sure that fine sand is used for plasterwork and coarse sand is used for brickwork and concrete. Store cement in a dry place as exposure to even a little bit of moisture can damage it.
Aggregates serves as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite structure (concrete). Make sure you use superior quality aggregates to increase the durability of structure. They should be uniform in size, clean and should not be flaky and elongated. Make sure that aggregates are mixed within the prescribed limit to achieve maximum strength.
A house is built on a strong base. However, the strength is also borne by columns and beams. And this is what gives the house the desired strength and shape. Rebars (TMT Bars) are used to not only in foundation but also in columns and beams to hold the concrete in its spiral grove and give it the desired strength to help the building stand tall. Now a days rebars are thermo mechanically treated to give it more tensile strength. The rebars should comply to the below mentioned BIS specifications.
|Fe 415||Fe 415D||Fe 500||Fe 500D||Fe 550||Fe 550D||Fe 600D|
|Sulphur & Phosphorus||0.110||0.085||0.105||0.075||0.100||0.075||0.075|
A strong foundation is important to support the structure. It holds the building up so that it does not sink to the supporting ground. The foundation should have a definite depth so that the structure does not get damaged due to expansion or compression of soil beneath the foundation. Proper marking of foundation should be done prior to excavation as the area of foundation depends upon the load capacity of the soil.
Treating termites before the construction starts can help us defend our homes against possible claims in the future. Termites live where there is high concentration of moisture and dampness. That is why they live deep under the ground where there is a lot of moisture. They also need cellulose to survive and what better than the wood used to make doors and windows in your house. Even paper is a good source of cellulose for them. Termite attack is very difficult to diagnose as it happens inside out. By the time you realize there is a termite attack, it’s too late. As a result, anti termite treatment is necessary to be done by professionals.
Proper brickwork is very important for stronger construction. It starts with the selection of bricks. They should be uniform in shape and should not absorb water more than 20-22% of its weight when soaked for around 24 hrs. They should have a minimum crushing strength of 5.5n/mm2. Additionally, bricks made of Fly Ash can also be used. They have high compressive strength,they are also light in weight which makes it suitable for multi story buildings. Because of less weight there is less stress on the building. They absorb less heat than normal bricks and are suitable to Indian conditions. Because of the uniform shape, less mortar is required for plastering and brick work. It also absorbs less water than clay bricks hence keep your house strong in the rainy season.
Water is used to mix cement with sand and aggregates so that it can be used for construction. Make sure you are using water which is free from organic compounds, silt and most importantly salt as salt absorbs moisture which can weaken the structure.
Plastering is used to give protective and decorative finish to a wall or a ceiling. It also gives them a smoother finish. Prescribed ratio of sand and cement along with water should be used for plastering. The surface on which the plaster has to be done should be free from dust and loose elements. Proper adhesion should be done on plaster and avoid unseen cracks.