Building a home is one of the most exciting and rewarding projects a person takes up at least once in a lifetime. At times the overall project can be overwhelming for many. However, this can be avoided with proper planning.
Each step of construction is very important and proper planning (which is the most important part) helps in the completion of your project smoothly. It starts with selecting an appropriate place/ plot for construction. Also, make sure that the piece of land is not prone to flooding and cleared by Registrar’s office. Public amenities like road, water, electricity, drainage, etc. should be available. Hire an architect to design your house based on what your budget is and make sure that the contractor working on the project is experienced.
Cement is one of the most important raw materials used for construction. When you mix it with sand you can use it for brickwork and plasterwork. And when you mix it with sand and aggregates, you can use it as concrete. Make sure you use fine sand for plasterwork and coarse sand for brickwork and concrete. Store cement in a dry place as exposure to even a little bit of moisture can damage it.
Aggregates serve as reinforcement to add strength to the overall composite structure (concrete). Make sure you use superior quality aggregates to increase the durability of the structure. They should be uniform in size, clean, and should not be flaky and elongated. Make sure that aggregates are mixed within the prescribed limit to achieve maximum strength.
A house is built on a strong base. And a strong base is made of Columns, Beams, and Foundation. This gives the house the desired strength and shape. Rebars (TMT Bars) are used not only in the foundation but also in columns and beams to hold the concrete in its spiral groove and give it the desired strength to help the building stand tall. Nowadays, rebars are Thermo mechanically treated to give it more tensile strength. The rebars should comply with the below mentioned BIS specifications.
|Fe 415||Fe 415D||Fe 500||Fe 500D||Fe 550||Fe 550D||Fe 600D|
|Sulphur & Phosphorus||0.110||0.085||0.105||0.075||0.100||0.075||0.075|
A strong foundation is important to support the structure. It holds the building up and does not let it sink to the supporting ground. Make sure the foundation has a definite depth so that the structure is not damaged due to expansion or compression of soil beneath it. Before excavation, do a proper marking of foundation as its area depends upon the load-bearing capacity of the soil and structure's design.
Taking precautions against termites before the construction starts can help us defend our homes against possible claims in the future. Termites live where there is a high concentration of moisture and dampness. That is why they live deep under the ground where there is a lot of moisture. They also need cellulose to survive and what better than the wood used to make doors and windows in your house. Even paper is a good source of cellulose for them. Termite attack is very difficult to diagnose as it happens inside out. By the time you realize there is a termite attack, it’s too late. As a result, anti-termite treatment is necessary to be done by professionals.
Precise brickwork is very crucial for stronger construction. It starts with the selection of bricks. Bricks should be uniform in shape and should not absorb water more than 20-22% of its weight when soaked for around 24 hrs. They should have a minimum crushing strength of 5.5n/mm2. Additionally, Fly Ash bricks are also used for construction. They have high compressive strength and are light in weight which makes them suitable for multi-story buildings. There is less stress on the building as it is light in weight. They absorb less heat than normal bricks and are suitable for Indian conditions. Because of its uniform shape, less mortar is required for plastering and brickwork. It also absorbs less water than clay bricks and keeps your house strong in the rainy season.
Water is used to mix cement with sand and aggregates so that it can be used for construction. Make sure you use water that is free from organic compounds, silt, and most importantly salt as it absorbs moisture which can weaken the structure.
Plaster is used to give a protective and decorative finish to a wall or a ceiling. It also gives them a smoother finish. The prescribed ratio of sand and cement along with water should be used for plastering. The surface should be free from dust and lose elements. Plaster should be done properly to avoid unseen cracks.